硬木 and soft wood look different and accept finishes differently.

硬木 是落叶, the botanical group of trees that have broad leaves, 生产水果或坚果, 冬天通常会进入休眠状态. There are hundreds of 硬木物种 in the United States; together they represent 40% of the trees in the United States. In contrast, softwoods, or conifers, have needles. 广泛使用的软木包括雪松、冷杉、铁杉、松树、红木和云杉.


A relative of birch, Alder grows from Alaska to Southern California. 它排名第三,仅次于橡树和松树,是最常用的成品家具木材.

  • 颜色: Consistent pale pinkish-brown to almost white.
  • 谷物: 没有独特的图案.
  • 特点: Good working properties, moderately lightweight, low shock resistance.
  • 完成: 漆面光滑,吸污效果好.


There are several species of American ash: black, brown and white. 是什么使它与众不同,并使许多特殊用途的Ash烬有价值的是它特殊的灵活性. Ash is among the most easily steam-bent 硬木物种. 早期的风车是用Ash烬制成的. Ash is used extensively in the manufacture of sporting goods; for example, 棒球棍是由白Ash制成的.

  • 颜色: Nearly pure lustrous white, ranging through cream to light brown.
  • 谷物: Attractive, straight, moderately open and pronounced.
  • 特点: 重, 硬, strong and 僵硬的 excellent bending qualities.
  • 完成: 很少画,因为它的大毛孔,但采取所有其他完成.



  • 颜色: 浅白色到浅棕色.
  • 谷物: Even, prominent, resembles oak and hickory; burls have a twisted, interwoven figure.
  • 特点: 重,硬,环多孔.
  • 完成: Ideal for non-penetrating finishes, such as water-based stains and paints.


与橡树和栗树有关的, Beech在阿巴拉契亚山脉的高海拔地区最为常见. 美国Beech是一种中等高的树,树皮光滑,优雅迷人. It grows along mountain slopes and rich uplands in nearly pure stands. 它耐阴性好, 使它成为一种可以在更高物种的树冠下茁壮成长的森林树木. 美国Beech在保持其强度的同时,对蒸汽弯曲具有很强的适应性, making it ideal bent-wood chairs and other bent-wood furniture. 它也是优秀的木材加工,耐穿和防腐剂好. 因为Beech会随着磨损变得光滑,它是完美的抽屉边和跑步.

  • 颜色: 范围从近白色到深红棕色.
  • 谷物: 密切和直接, 体型小,纹理均匀, identified by its 黑暗 pores in conspicuous rays
  • 特点: 硬 and strong; good resistance to abrasive wear
  • 完成: 易上漆、着色或漂白.


Yellow birch is a deciduous 硬wood that grows primarily in the upland, 东北部丘陵地形和湖州森林:有九种桦树原产于北美, including the distinctive and familiar white-trunked paper birch. Yellow birch is the most common commercial lumber birch. 它是由它的光亮来识别的, yellowish-bronze-colored bark that peels in long, 薄的横条.

  • 颜色: 奶油色或略带红色.
  • 谷物: 纤细的,通常卷曲的或波浪状的.
  • 特点: 重、强、硬且纹理均匀.
  • 完成: 很容易染上颜料和污渍


像所有果树一样,Cherry属于玫瑰科,早在公元前400年就被使用了.C. by the Greeks and Romans for furniture making. Cherry帮助定义了美国传统的设计,因为殖民地的橱柜制造商认识到它的优秀木工品质. Today, cherry helps define Shaker, Mission and country styling. The wood's rich red-brown color deepens with age. 又小又黑的口香糖斑点更增加了它的兴趣. Distinctive, unique figures and grains are brought out with quarter sawing. It has an exceptionally lustrous appearance that glows. 表面处理手感光滑.

  • 颜色: Rich, reddish-brown; 黑暗ens considerably with age and exposure to sunlight.
  • 谷物: 直 and satiny; small gum pockets produce distinctive markings.
  • 特点: 轻,强,硬,相当硬.
  • 完成: Unsurpassed in its finishing qualities; its uniform texture takes a finish well.


The 硬wood eucalyptus genus represents more than 300 species. 它们已经在南美、南非、欧洲和美国成功种植. Eucalyptus是一种可再生资源,在较短的收获轮中产量较高. The wood in these products comes from well managed forests, 根据森林管理委员会(FSC)的规则独立认证.

  • 颜色: Pinkish-brown; turns reddish-brown with age and exposure to light.
  • 特点: Strong, heavy; low maintenance; high oil content makes it resistant to decay and insects.
  • 谷物: 直、密、紧、轻.
  • 完成: Weathers to a soft gray; advisable to leave wood unfinished.


A native American tree, hickories are members of the walnut family. Hickory is the 硬est, heaviest and strongest American wood in common use. 据说,西行的拓荒者把山核桃作为他们马车轮子的先决条件.

  • 颜色: White to tan to reddish-brown with inconspicuous fine brown lines.
  • 谷物: 细.
  • 特点: Extremely 艰难的 and resilient; even texture; 硬 and moderately heavy.
  • 完成: Welcomes a full range of medium to 黑暗 finishes and bleaching treatments.


在所有木材中,Mahogany是最珍贵的木材之一. 新型汽车最初是完全用Mahogany雕刻而成的. 每一块, 从前保险杠到引擎, 指示板, 驱动轴, 箱子上的锁最初是用这种马厩的硬木做成的.

  • 颜色: Varies from light red or pale tan to a rich, 黑暗, 深红色或深金棕色, 取决于原产国.
  • 谷物: 一般直, 但它的数据很有价值, 其中包括条纹, 罗伊, 卷曲的, 泡, 小提琴状的东西和斑点.
  • 特点: Extremely strong, 硬, stable and decay-resistant.
  • 完成: Finishes and stains to a beautiful natural luster.


The American species of maple are divided into two groups: 硬 maple, which includes sugar and black maple; and soft maple, 其中包括红枫和银枫. 直到世纪之交, the heels of women's shoes were made from maple, 就像20世纪20年代的飞机螺旋桨一样. 从早期殖民时代起,枫树就一直是美国家具制造商的最爱.

  • 颜色: 从奶油到浅红褐色.
  • 谷物: Usually straight, close; sometimes found with highly figured bird's-eye or burl grain.
  • 特点: 重, 硬, strong, 艰难的, 僵硬的; possesses a uniform texture; resistant to abrasion and indentation, making it ideal flooring as well as cutting boards and countertops.
  • 完成: Takes stain satisfactorily and polishes well.


红栎和白栎是美国最丰富的树种.S. 硬木物种. 在家具和室内设计中,很难命名一种有着更悠久和更辉煌历史的木材. 橡树是早期英国工匠的最爱,也是美国殖民者的珍贵材料. 白橡树只是86种原产于美国的橡树中的一种,但它却是美国的经典橡树. Although prevalent throughout the eastern half of the United States, 从缅因州到德克萨斯州, white oak lumber comes chiefly from the south, 南大西洋和中部各州, 包括阿巴拉契亚山脉南部. 红橡树只生长在北美,比其他任何橡树种类都更靠北. 红橡树是一棵生长缓慢的大树,它需要20年的时间才能成熟,平均寿命为300年. It’s great for flooring, furniture, cabinets, ships and decorative woodwork.

  • 颜色: White oak ranges from nearly white sapwood to a 黑暗er, gray-brown heartwood; Red oak ranges from nearly white cream color to a warm, 略带红色的淡褐色心材.
  • 谷物: Distinguished by rays that reflect light and add to its attractiveness; depending on the way the logs are sawn into timber (rift-cut, 平切, 平的锯, 旋切, 住宿), many distinctive and sought-after patterns emerge: flake figures, 销的条纹, 细纹, 多叶的谷物和水的图形.
  • 特点: 重, strong, 硬, 僵硬的, 持久的曝光不足, 伟大的耐磨性, 能很好地固定钉子和螺钉.
  • 完成: Stain beautifully with a wide range of finish tones.


Parawood is native to the Amazon Region of South America. Information about Parawood can be traced back to Christopher Columbus. 在他第二次访问南美期间, he wondered at the heavy black ball the natives were using in games. This black ball was made from the vegetable gum of the Parawood tree. Later historians would also marvel at this substance, which bounced so much when thrown to the ground it appeared to be alive. 在19世纪,一个名叫亨利·维克汉姆的英国人把一些种子运到英国进行发芽. The seeds germinated and these small seedlings were transported to the Malay Peninsula for planting; there to start the Great Rubber Plantations of Malaysia. 经过25到30年的乳胶生产, tapped in the same manner syrup is tapped from the Maple trees, the tree ceases to produce sufficient quantities of latex. 这棵树被砍下来用于制造精致的家具,然后再种上一棵新的树.

  • 颜色: 淡黄色.
  • 谷物: 类似Mahogany的开放纹理.
  • 特点: 非常硬的木头.
  • 完成: 污渍很均匀.



  • 颜色: 淡奶油.
  • 谷物: 直.
  • 特点: 甚至纹理.
  • 完成: 能很好地完成大部分终点.


南黄松实际上是一个主要由四种树组成的物种组:火炬松(taeda Pinus), 长叶松(泥松), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and slash pine (Pinus eliottii) Loblolly Pine is the most important and predominant of the four; it grows throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain, 通常是在商业摊位上, from Maryland south through all the Carolinas and Georgia into Florida, 向西延伸到东德克萨斯. It is classified as a 硬 pine and is 硬er than white pine.

  • 颜色: 温暖的淡黄带棕色结.
  • 谷物: High density, uneven; distinctive light and 黑暗 pattern.
  • 特点: 硬.
  • 完成: 能很好地完成大部分终点; with some stains, a sealer helps prepare the wood to achieve a more even look.


Found in the uplands of Newfoundland and Manitoba, south throughout New England and the Great Lakes Region to South Carolina, White Pine is the state tree of Maine and Michigan. A large tree with relatively few horizontal big limbs, the Eastern white pine is one of the tallest timber trees in the Northeast.

  • 颜色: White to pale yellow with a reddish tinge; 黑暗ens with age and air exposure, 最终变成深橙色.
  • 谷物: 轻、软、直,质地均匀.
  • 特点: Works well and is easily shaped with hand and power tools; accepts many types of glue well, 使紧密结合.
  • 完成: 能很好地完成大部分终点; with some stains, a sealer helps prepare the wood to achieve a more even look.


又称黄杨, 郁金香Poplar, 郁金香木和山胡桃杨, Poplar长得比美国任何其他树都高.S. 硬木物种. Yellow poplar grows quickly into a tall straight tree. It is found alone in open, rich, moist soil. 由于它的快速成熟,从Poplar木材是轻和软的硬木. It is strong, durable and seasons well, resisting warping once it is dried. 因为树干没有四肢或树枝,除了顶部,木头没有结.

  • 颜色: 白色到黄色, 有时带有微绿色的铸型,偶尔有暗紫色的条纹.
  • 谷物: 直.
  • 特点: Comparatively uniform texture; light to medium weight; excellent strength and stability; cuts and sands well; keeps its edge and resists splitting.
  • 完成: Stains well and can easily be made to resemble walnut or maple; often painted because it takes paint exceptionally well.